Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness kill more than 10,000 people every year in Latin America and Africa.
Millions are currently living with the potentially deadly diseases, and tens of millions more are at risk of being infected.
With numbers like those, you’d expect more people to be paying attention. But neither Chagas nor sleeping sickness receives much press.
Roberto Docampo wants to change that.
“In some areas, you have 50 to 60 percent of people who are infected with Chagas disease,” says Docampo, the Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Cellular Biology. This obscenely high disease burden strains developing nations’ resources by reducing the available workforce and complicates even the most routine medical procedures by making it almost impossible to ensure a parasite-free blood supply for surgeries and transfusion.
The inadequate housing that frequently dots the landscapes of impoverished nations makes the task of eradicating the bugs much more difficult.
“The insects that carry the parasite invade houses, so it’s practically impossible to eliminate the disease,” Docampo explains. “The only way to do it is by improving housing, which would prevent the bugs from getting inside,” something that may not be possible in the nations where the diseases are most prevalent. Instead, Docampo is working to find new targets and tools that could eliminate the trypanosome parasites that cause both Chagas and sleeping sickness.
Most cases of Chagas disease occur in Latin America, where infected kissing bugs, also known as assassin or vampire bugs, bite people or animals and transfer the parasite into their bloodstreams. African sleeping sickness is contracted through the bite of a tsetse fly.